Fogelsville, PA

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Some information and terms to know

when making your next purchase

Any questions feel free to give us a call


The “4 Cs” of Diamond Quality was created to help consumers and retailers communicate the wants, needs and understanding about a diamond purchase. Clarity, Color, Cut and Carat weight.

Diamonds come in every color of the spectrum so when it comes to the color of the diamond, or lack of color we could say, it makes a huge impact on its overall quality and price of the specific diamond. Colorless stones are graded D and continues down the alphabet and with each letter gets a little more yellow to Z. There is also Fancy colored diamonds which come in every color of the rainbow and are graded based on their depth in hue.  A good range to stay in for bridal quality is D to G depending on your budget.


All natural diamonds have some type of blemish or characteristic created by nature when the diamond was formed under extreme heat and pressure.  Imperfections known as inclusions can be dark spots, lines and bubbles and are internal, blemishes or external characteristics. These types of inclusions can affect how light passes through the stone, diminishing the brilliance and sparkle and affecting the overall value. Clarity is graded on a scale ranging from Flawless (FL or IF) to Included (I).


The cut of the diamond plays a very important role as well! Each diamond is cut to a precise mathematical equation so the facets on the diamond can yield the most light and reflect it back to you. That mesmerizing reflection is known as brilliance without it the diamond would appear lifeless and dull. The most popular cuts for engagement rings today are the Round and the Princess cut.


This term is used to measure the weight of the diamond, derived from the use of carob seeds used to balance scales in ancient times. A carat is equal to 200 milligrams and there are 142 carats to an ounce. Divided into “points” there are 100 points in a carat, there for a ¾ carat diamond is referred to as a 75-point stone.







































Gold Jewelry/Freshwater Pearls

Garnet/Rose Quarts


Blue Topaz/Amethyst



Onyx/Lapis Lazuli


Lapis Lazuli/Tiger Eye









Cat's Eye/Opal





Imperial Topaz/Sapphire


Sterling Silver








Star Sapphire


Agate: Agate is a form of finely-grained, microcrystalline Quartz with banding and color patterns. Has many different verities and is used to make beads, cameos and figurines.


Color: White, Blue, Red, Green, Yellow, Orange, Brown, Pink, Purple, Gray, Black, Banded, & Multicolored

Hardness: 7


Alexandrite: Rare and valuable color changing gemstone variety of chrysoberyl. The color of Alexandrite changes under different lighting conditions, viewed in daylight its color is greenish blue to dark yellow-green. If viewed in incandescent or candle light, its color is pink to red.


Color: Blue, Red, Green, Yellow, Pink, Purple, Gray, & multicolored

Hardness: 8.5

Birthstone: June


Amethyst: From the Greek word meaning “not drunk,” amethyst was also the name of legendary maiden transformed into a purple stone by Bacchus, the god of wine. Amethyst is fairly inexpensive and very obtainable. Amethyst colors range from light to dark purple and the transparent deep purple colors are the most highly regarded.


Colors: Purple & Green

Hardness: 7 Birthstone: February

Rated “good” for everyday wear


Aquamarine: Is a light blue gem meaning “ocean water” and is a close – though less rare- cousin to other beryl such as emerald, morganite and heliodor. Popular amulet amongst sailors, aquamarine is believed to promote youthful vitality, health and mental clarity.


Colors: light to dark blue

Hardness: 7.5-8 Birthstone: March

Rated “good” for everyday wear


Citrine: Which takes in name from the French word “citron,” or lemon is a light yellow to golden quartz tinted with traces of iron. Rare in nature most citrine is created by heating amethyst.


Colors: yellow, orange & brown

Hardness: 7 Birthstone: November

Rated “good” for everyday wear


Coral: Is one of the very few organic gems, made from the discarded shells of marine invertebrates. Polished coral was treasured by sailors as a charm against rough seas. Ancient Romans and Persians used it to cure madness and impart wisdom and in India, it was ingested in powder form as an aphrodisiac.


Colors: light to medium salmon, medium to dark orangey red

Hardness: 3.5-4

Rated “not good” for everyday wear, take care while wearing


Cubic Zirconia (CZ): Cubic zirconia is similar in appearance to a diamond with its brilliance and crystal clarity, but it is a synthesized (man-made) crystalline material that is colorless, hard, and flawless.


Diamond: Diamond, the most famed of all gemstones, known for being the hardest substance on earth, its sparkling fire, durability, and rarity make Diamond the most prized of all gems. Aside from colorless or faintly colored diamonds the natural colored “fancies” are extremely expensive. Most colored diamonds you see today are heat treated with radiation; temperatures range from 500-1200 degrees Celsius and can turn a verity of different colors.


Hardness: 10 Birthstone: April

Rated “very good” for everyday wear


Emerald: The green variety of Beryl, is the most famous and valuable green gemstone. Its beautiful green color and rarity make it one of the most expensive gemstones. Deep green is the most desired color in Emeralds. They are sometimes heat treated, which causes their color to turn blue and transform into Aquamarine.


Color: Light to dark green

Hardness: 7.5-8 Birthstone: May

Rated “fair to good” for everyday wear with care! Avoid exposure to heat, chemicals and harsh blows.


Garnet: Of the Pyrope family and is not a single mineral, but describes a group of several closely related minerals. Garnets come in a variety of colors and have many different varieties. However, the most widely-known color of Garnet gemstones is dark red. Other varieties include Rhodalite Garnet (raspberry color), Tsavorite Garnet (green) and Spessartite Garnet (orange-red).


Colors: Red, Green, Yellow, Orange, Brown, Pink, Purple, Gray & black

Hardness: 7-7.5 Birthstone: January


Moissanite: Also known as silicon carbide, while natural silicon carbide is rare on Earth first gained fame when tiny particles were discovered by the Nobel Prize-winning French chemist Dr. Henri Moissan at the site of a massive meteorite strike in Arizona. We offer Charles & Colvard® Created Moissanite brand, scientists perfected and patented the innovative process that creates silicon carbide crystals. Re-creating those conditions in a controlled, profoundly accelerated process which produces durable, super-hard crystals with a minimum of ecological impact.


Rated “good” for everyday wear


Chatham Gemstones: Lab-created gemstones. In 1938 Carroll F. Chatham, a young scientist in San Francisco, California, discovered the secret to growing gems. By recreating conditions with the right temperatures, pressures and chemical solutions he was capable of growing them in his lab. These gems are created with the same physical, chemical, optical and spectral qualities at a fraction of the cost of natural gems.


Varity: Alexandrite, emerald, ruby, sapphire; blue, pink, yellow and padparadscha & Gilson® created black & white opal


Moonstone: Moonstone is the most well-known gemstone of the feldspar group, named for its glowing color sheen that resembles the moonlight. The refractions were once believed to be benevolent spirits.


Hardness: 6-6.5

Rated “good” for everyday wear


Morganite: Soft romantic pink to purplish-pink beryl discovered in Madagascar in the 1900’s and was named by George Fredrick Kunz. Story goes Kunz named it after his patron J.P. Morgan because he previously failed to honor Morgan upon the discovery of another precious pink stone Kunzite.


Hardness: 7.5-8 Rated “good” for everyday wear.


Kunzite: Kunzite is the pink to light purple gem variety of the mineral Spodumene. Spodumene is a common mineral, but only in several localities does it occur in transparent gem form. The main gem form of Spodumene is Kunzite, the other is the rarer Hiddenite. Yellow and colorless gem forms of Spodumene also exist, but are not commonly faceted as gemstones. Kunzite has a lovely pink color and is becoming increasingly popular in the gemstone market.


Hardness: 6.5-7


Onyx: Its most accepted gemstone definition describes a solid black Chalcedony, or a banded or layered black and white Chalcedony. Popular in men’s rings and in its solid black form, Onyx is the most traditional black gemstone. Onyx was thought to enhance confidence and authority and to guard the heart from romantic obsessions.


Hardness: 6.5-7


Opal: Opal is the most magical and colorful of gems. Its splendid play of color is unique, and fine examples can even be more valuable than Diamond. The play of color consists of iridescent color flashes that change with the angle at which the stone is viewed. This phenomenon is often called opalescence. Dangled as a hypnotic talisman or powered into a compound to instill invisibility, people believed opals to be bewitching and mysterious.


Hardness: 5-6.5 Birthstone: October Rated “fair” for everyday wear, be cautious.


Pearl: From white and golden South Sea Cultured having a status as the most sought after pearls to black Tahitian Cultured, Akoya, Mabé, freshwater and cultured. Pearls can be natural in color or dyed but are always a sophisticated and stunning choice.


Hardness: 2.5-4 Birthstone: June Rated “not good” for everyday wear


Peridot: Peridot is a well-known and ancient gemstone, with jewelry pieces dating all the way back to the Pharaohs in Egypt. Peridot is one of the very few gems that appears to exist in only one color. Today the United States is the leading producer of peridot, with most production coming from the San Carlos Indian Reservation in Arizona.


Hardness: 6.5-7 Birthstone: August Rated “fair” for everyday wear